Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest specific energy per weight. Rechargeable batteries with lithium metal on the anode could provide extraordinarily high energy densities; however, it was discovered in the mid-1980s that cycling produced unwanted dendrites on the anode. These growth particles penetrate the separator and cause an electrical short. The cell temperature would rise quickly and approach the melting point of lithium, causing thermal runaway, also known as “venting with flame.” A large number of rechargeable metallic lithium batteries sent to Japan were recalled in 1991 after a battery in a mobile phone released flaming gases and inflicted burns to a man’s face.
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